[ Justice in the Air ] tracks toxic data from America’s Industries and Companies to Our States, Cities, and Neighborhoods.
And examines who breaths a disproportionate share of toxic air and who is releasing them.
Links on company names below lead to detailed company reports.
East Chicago Companies in Orange
[ EPA ] Sets CO2 Standards for Power Plants and Oil Refineries
Power plants account for more than 2.3 billion tons of carbon dioxide emissions each year, more than any other industry. Oil refineries clock in as the second largest source, with emissions equivalent to more than 200 million tons of carbon dioxide (mainly a mixture of carbon dioxide and methane).
via NRDC Switchboard [ David Doniger’s Blog ]
List of Coal Plants in the US via [ Wikipedia ]
|Rank||State||# of Plants||Total
- Tuscaloosa Refinery (Hunt Refining Company), Tuscaloosa 52,000 bbl/d (8,300 m3/d)
- Saraland Refinery (Shell Oil Company), Saraland 80,000 bbl/d (13,000 m3/d)
- Mobile Refinery (Gulf Atlantic Refining & Marketing), Mobile 16,700 bbl/d (2,660 m3/d)
- Kenai Refinery (Tesoro), Kenai 72,000 bbl/d (11,400 m3/d)
- Valdez Refinery (Petro Star), Valdez 50,000 bbl/d (7,900 m3/d)
- North Pole Refinery (Petro Star), North Pole 17,000 bbl/d (2,700 m3/d)
- Kuparuk Refinery (ConocoPhillips), Kuparuk 14,400 bbl/d (2,290 m3/d)
- North Pole Refinery (Flint Hills Resources), North Pole 210,000 bbl/d (33,000 m3/d)
- Prudhoe Bay Refinery (BP), Prudhoe Bay 12,500 bbl/d (1,990 m3/d)
- El Dorado Refinery (Lion Oil), El Dorado 70,000 bbl/d (11,000 m3/d)
- Smackover Refinery (Cross Oil), Smackover 6,800 bbl/d (1,080 m3/d)
- Bakersfield Refinery (Big West), Bakersfield, 66,000 bbl/d (10,500 m3/d)
- Bakersfield Refinery (Kern Oil), Bakersfield, 25,000 bbl/d (4,000 m3/d)
- Bakersfield Refinery (San Joaquin Refining Company), Bakersfield, 24,300 bbl/d (3,860 m3/d)
- Benicia Refinery (Valero), Benicia, 144,000 bbl/d (22,900 m3/d)
- Carson Refinery (BP), Carson, 265,000 bbl/d (42,100 m3/d)
- El Segundo Refinery (Chevron), El Segundo, 265,500 bbl/d (42,210 m3/d)
- Golden Eagle Refinery (Tesoro), near Martinez, 166,000 bbl/d (26,400 m3/d)
- Long Beach Refinery (Edgington Oil Company), Long Beach, 26,000 bbl/d (4,100 m3/d)
- Martinez Refinery (Shell Oil Company), Martinez, 154,900 bbl/d (24,630 m3/d)
- Oxnard Refinery (Tenby Inc), Oxnard, 2,800 bbl/d (450 m3/d)
- Paramount Refinery (Paramount Petroleum), Paramount, 50,000 bbl/d (7,900 m3/d)
- Richmond Refinery (Chevron), Richmond, 242,901 bbl/d (38,618.2 m3/d)
- Rodeo San Francisco Refinery (ConocoPhillips), Rodeo, 100,000 bbl/d (16,000 m3/d)
- Santa Maria Refinery (ConocoPhillips), Santa Maria, 41,800 bbl/d (6,650 m3/d)
- Santa Maria Refinery (Greka Energy), Santa Maria, 9,500 bbl/d (1,510 m3/d)
- South Gate Refinery (Lunday Thagard), South Gate, 8,500 bbl/d (1,350 m3/d)
- Torrance Refinery (ExxonMobil), Torrance, 149,000 bbl/d (23,700 m3/d)
- Wilmington Asphalt Refinery (Valero), Wilmington, 5,900 bbl/d (940 m3/d)
- Wilmington Refinery (Tesoro), Wilmington, 133,100 bbl/d (21,160 m3/d)
- Wilmington Refinery (Shell Oil Company), Wilmington, 98,500 bbl/d (15,660 m3/d)
- Wilmington Refinery (Valero), Wilmington, 149,000 bbl/d (23,700 m3/d)
- Delaware City Refinery (idle in 2010; purchased by PBF Energy Partners from Valero in April 2010)
- Savannah Refinery (NuStar), Savannah (Asphalt Refinery) 28,000 bpd
- Douglasville Refinery (Young Refining), Douglasville — shutdown 07/04
- Kapolei Refinery (Tesoro), Kapolei 93,500 bbl/d (14,870 m3/d)
- Hawaii Refinery (Chevron), Kapolei 54,000 bbl/d (8,600 m3/d)
- Lemont Refinery (Citgo), Romeoville 160,000 bbl/d (25,000 m3/d)
- Joliet Refinery (ExxonMobil), Joliet 238,000 bbl/d (37,800 m3/d)
- Robinson Refinery (Marathon Petroleum Company), Robinson 215,000 bbl/d (34,200 m3/d)
- Wood River Refinery (ConocoPhillips), Wood River 306,000 bbl/d (48,700 m3/d)
- Whiting Refinery (BP), Whiting 405,000 bbl/d (64,400 m3/d)
- Mount Vernon Refinery (Countrymark Co-op), Mount Vernon 23,000 bbl/d (3,700 m3/d)
via [ Democracy Now ] COP16 in Cancun, December 9, 2010
via [ Sierra Club ] Toxic Tar Sands: Indiana
Carolyn Marsh, Whiting Indiana
Carolyn Marsh’s house in Whiting, Indiana, just southeast of Chicago, sits within walking distance of both Lake Michigan and the BP Whiting Refinery. One is beautiful and the other, Marsh says, looks like “a death trap zone.” Now BP is pushing to expand the capacity of its refinery to process tar sands crude.
The synthetic heavy crude produced from tar sands is laden with more toxins than conventional oil. If the expansion goes through, people like Marsh, who live in the shadow of these refineries, will face increased exposure to heavy metals, sulfur, and carcinogens like benzene.
After learning of BP’s plans to pump tar sands pollution into the air and her community, Marsh was galvanized to action. She joined a legal challenge to the oil giant’s air permit.
Marsh believes BP’s permit application dramatically underestimates the potential air pollution from their tar sands expansion. The company understated the amount of toxic gases vented from flares, claiming they would only be released occasionally. But flaring will only increase as the refinery handles more of the world’s dirtiest oil.
Flaring is only one part of the refinery’s massive polluting process, and air pollution is not the only threat that Marsh fears from the tar sands expansion.“We don’t want Lake Michigan to become another oil industry sacrifice zone. Quality of life here in Indiana should not suffer for foreign oil profits.”
The refinery is already one of the largest sources of mercury pollution in Lake Michigan. Mercury is a
Tar sands crude spells disaster for clean water in every step of its life cycle. If tar sands operations continue to expand in America, Lake Michigan will be exposed to the same types of contamination spreading through the once pristine water sources along the Athabasca River in Alberta, where tar sands are mined.
A recent study published by leading Canadian scientists found elevated concentrations of toxic heavy metals including arsenic, lead and mercury around and downstream from tar sands mining operations, suggesting a strong correlation between tar sands mining and toxic discharges to water resources.These poisonous impurities are released in refining as well, and discharges from BP’s tar sands expansion will bring the pollution of the Athabasca directly to Lake Michigan.
Marsh believes the citizen struggle to stop the tar sands expansion is her community’s best line of defense, and she has committed to the fight. She has little faith in state regulators, whom she believes are too complicit with toxic conditions created by BP’s refinery. Marsh knows what’s at stake.
Lake Michigan, which provides drinking water for 10 million people, will be exposed to new levels of contamination from particulate emissions and huge increases in ammonia and other discharges into the water from the refinery’s tar sands expansion.potent neurotoxin that causes severe fetal damage, impaired motor function, and kidney and respiratory damage in humans. “We don’t want Lake Michigan to become another oil industry sacrifice zone. Quality of life here in Indiana should not suffer for foreign oil profits,” she says.
via [ OurWorld 2.0 ] “Mapping critical politics: a land use expert talks tar sands” By Max Ritts
The late geographer Bernard Nietschmann once observed that “more indigenous territory has been claimed by maps than by guns”. Whether or not you agree that more can be taken back with maps, it is hard to overestimate the role of representations in the shaping of collective understandings and modes of possible intervention in political struggle.
Land use maps can have a number of applications. In many countries, they are prepared by government agencies, for a variety of reasons, or by individual groups and organizations. Often, land use maps are made publicly available for the benefit of those interested in land use trends. These maps can also become important in zoning and property disputes. Read more…